AI-Generated Disinformation Campaigns Surrounding COVID-19 in the DRC


Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the Democratic Republic of Congo faced a surge in AI-driven disinformation campaigns across social media. These sophisticated misinformation endeavors aimed to undermine confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and treatments. Cutting-edge AI detection tools (for example,,, were instrumental in identifying AI-generated falsehoods in diverse media formats. Furthermore, platforms like Twitter Audit, Meltwater, Gephi, and CrowdTangle were pivotal in tracing the intricate spread of misinformation. This case study elucidates the crucial role of advanced detection methodologies in combating AI-generated disinformation, underlining the necessity for ongoing adaptation and innovation in trust and safety strategies to safeguard the integrity of information in the digital sphere.


The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) weaves a tapestry of historical intricacies amidst political upheaval and societal challenges. In this complex narrative, a digital revolution unfolds. The internet’s arrival and the surge of social media herald an era of connectivity, yet spawn a formidable adversary: disinformation, bolstered by AI-powered campaigns. These challenges transcend mere misinformation, imperiling the nation’s development, political stability, and societal dialogue. The DRC’s unique socio political landscape renders it vulnerable to disinformation’s insidious effects. Vast expanses and limited infrastructure foster fertile ground for false narratives. Historical conflicts breed deep distrust in traditional media, making social platforms the primary information source. AI-driven disinformation adds complexity, mimicking human language and creating realistic content. This challenges conventional moderation, amplifying the struggle to differentiate fact from fiction, particularly in the rapid, dynamic sphere of social media.

The Case

Over the span of a year, Digital Security Group, a DRC based disinformation research organization devoted extensive efforts to combat COVID-19 disinformation on various social media platforms across the DRC during the pandemic. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Reddit, Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube were monitored rigorously. Our findings revealed a cascade of AI-generated disinformation, encompassing deepfake, altered imagery, manipulated audio, and fabricated text disseminated to deceive and dissuade citizens from COVID-19 vaccination and treatment. This battle extended beyond combating the virus itself; it encompassed thwarting disinformation campaigns meticulously crafted to instigate fear and distrust among the populace. AI-fueled misinformation aimed to dissuade vaccination, capitalizing on historical mistrust, cultural beliefs, and healthcare disparities within the DRC.

The disinformation campaigns exploited social media platforms to propagate false claims about vaccine safety, alleging severe adverse effects and even fabricating stories of fatalities linked to vaccination. The AI-generated content, cleverly designed to mimic authentic human communication, blurred the lines between reality and falsehoods, intensifying skepticism among vulnerable communities and hindering vaccination efforts.

Our response required an intricate collaboration between health authorities, community leaders, and tech experts. We disseminated accurate information through trusted local channels, providing education on vaccine benefits, and debunking myths perpetuated by disinformation campaigns. Vital initiatives aimed at enhancing digital literacy empowered individuals to discern credible information amidst the onslaught of fabricated narratives. However, despite our best efforts, combatting AI-driven disinformation remained an ongoing challenge. The adaptability of these campaigns emphasized the need for sustained vigilance. Continuous collaboration between authorities, healthcare providers, and community leaders emerged as a necessity in safeguarding public health and fostering trust in healthcare interventions.

Lessons learned from this battle against AI-driven disinformation underscore the critical need for a multifaceted approach. Emphasizing proactive countermeasures, community education, and robust partnerships across sectors can mitigate the influence of misinformation. Continuous adaptation and vigilance remain imperative to protect public health and ensure the dissemination of accurate information for the welfare of communities.

The Response

To counter the pervasive AI-driven disinformation circulating around COVID-19 vaccines and treatments in the DRC, a multifaceted approach was adopted, integrating diverse tools and methodologies. We utilized to scrutinize visuals and identify manipulated or AI-generated imagery, leveraged for detecting AI-generated text, scrutinizing content for fabricated or misleading information, and employed, which was pivotal in identifying AI-generated audio content, ensuring a comprehensive examination of misinformation in various media formats.

Furthermore, we used an array of social media analysis tools (e.g., TwitterAudit, CrowdTangle, Meltwater, and Gephi). They played pivotal roles in helping us to comprehend disinformation propagation across diverse social media accounts. These tools also provided insights into the temporal and spatial dissemination patterns, elucidating how misinformation infiltrated different communities and accounts.

This amalgamation of detection tools and social media analysis platforms facilitated a comprehensive comprehension of the breadth and influence of AI-generated disinformation campaigns. It not only enabled the identification of misinformation across diverse media formats but also furnished critical insights into the intricate dynamics of information dissemination within social media realms. This informed the formulation of targeted strategies to combat the dissemination of false information, aiming to reinforce trust in credible COVID-19 information sources and treatments. Additionally, collaborative efforts between health authorities, community leaders, and tech experts were paramount in disseminating accurate information through trusted local channels and educational campaigns. These initiatives aimed to debunk myths and educate vulnerable communities about vaccine safety and efficacy.

Nevertheless, effectively addressing the impact of AI-propelled misinformation remained an ongoing challenge. While proactive steps were taken to combat false information, such as the adoption of the Digital Code in the Democratic Republic of Congo (ratified on March 13, 2023, through Ordinance-Law No. 23/010, which condemns perpetrators of misinformation on social networks, and efforts to bolster digital literacy), the agility of misinformation campaigns underscored the need for continual adaptation, vigilance, and collaborative endeavors to protect reliable information amidst the evolving landscape of AI-generated falsehoods. 


The case in the DRC highlights the significance of adopting a multifaceted approach in trust and safety efforts. Employing diverse detection tools for various media formats—image, text, and audio—was instrumental in identifying AI-generated disinformation. This approach emphasizes the need for a comprehensive toolkit to combat evolving forms of misinformation and underscores the importance of diversifying T&S strategies to address multifaceted threats effectively.

Utilizing social media analysis tools like TwitterAudit, CrowdTangle, Meltwater, and Gephi offered crucial insights into the dissemination patterns of disinformation across diverse accounts. This highlights the value of monitoring and understanding the dynamics of information spread on social platforms. T&S efforts benefit from these insights by enabling proactive measures to counter misinformation, fostering a better understanding of dissemination patterns and aiding in the formulation of targeted interventions.

The dynamic nature of AI-generated disinformation campaigns underscores the necessity for continuous adaptation and vigilance in the T&S landscape. While tools were effective in identifying and analyzing misinformation, the campaigns’ evolving tactics emphasize the need for ongoing improvements in detection methods and a sustained commitment to countering disinformation. This highlights the importance of staying ahead of evolving threats and continuously refining T&S strategies to effectively tackle new challenges. In conclusion, the battle against AI-generated disinformation encompassing COVID-19 vaccines and treatments in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) underscores the necessity for a multifaceted approach and continual adaptation to combat evolving misinformation threats. 

Despite concerted efforts, the adaptive nature of disinformation campaigns persisted, emphasizing the need for sustained vigilance and ongoing adaptation in combating AI-driven falsehoods. While significant strides were made in identifying, understanding, and mitigating the impact of disinformation, the complexity and dynamics of AI-generated misinformation demand continual adaptation and collaborative strategies to safeguard accurate information and bolster trust in credible sources. This case highlights the critical importance of proactive measures, ongoing collaboration, and adaptable strategies to navigate the ever-evolving landscape of AI-driven disinformation, ensuring the protection of public health and the dissemination of accurate information for the welfare of communities.

Company considerations:

  • How might social media platforms integrate advanced AI-driven detection tools without compromising user privacy?
  • What measures should platforms implement to proactively address the rapid spread of AI-generated disinformation before it gains traction?
  • How might transparency in content moderation practices be improved to foster user trust while countering AI-driven misinformation?
  • How might a diversified toolkit incorporating AI-driven detection methods enhance current T&S strategies against evolving disinformation campaigns?
  • What ethical considerations should be addressed when utilizing AI-powered tools for detecting and countering disinformation?

Issue considerations:

  • How might collaborations between academia, tech companies, and governmental organizations improve the development and deployment of sophisticated detection tools?
  • How might insights gained from social media analysis tools be effectively utilized to tailor targeted public health campaigns combating vaccine hesitancy fueled by AI-generated disinformation?
  • What educational initiatives can be implemented to enhance digital literacy and critical thinking among communities to discern between genuine and fabricated information regarding COVID-19 and vaccines?
  • How might partnerships between health authorities and social media platforms be strengthened to disseminate accurate health information and combat the impact of AI-driven disinformation?
  • What responsibilities do social media users have in curbing the spread of misinformation, and how can they contribute to a more informed online community?

Considerations for policymakers:

  • What regulatory frameworks or policies can be implemented to curb the proliferation of AI-driven disinformation while safeguarding freedom of expression?
  • How can governments support the development and implementation of AI-powered detection tools for countering disinformation while ensuring ethical use?
  • What international collaborations or initiatives can be established to address the transnational nature of AI-generated disinformation and its impact on global trust and safety?

Written by Narcisse Mbunzama, November 2023. Narcisse is a computer science trainee and the founder of the Digital Security Group, a DRC based research organization working on disinformation issues across Sub-Saharan Africa.